Why It Takes So Long to Diagnose Ankylosing Spondylitis

SOURCES:

Carlos Julio Aponte, MD, certified rheumatologist and member of the American College of Rheumatology.

David Borenstein, MD, clinical professor of medicine, George Washington University Medical Center; associate, Arthritis and Rheumatism Associates, Washington, DC; editor, spinecommunity.com.

UpToDate: “Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (ankylosing spondylitis and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis) in adults”, “Pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis”.

National Health Service (UK): “Ankylosing spondylitis.”

American Spondylitis Association: “Diagnosis of Ankylosing Spondylitis”.

Johns Hopkins Arthritis Center: “Ankylosing Spondylitis”.

Current rheumatology reports: “Gender differences in axial spondyloarthritis: women are not so lucky.”

Stanford Healthcare: “How is ankylosing spondylitis diagnosed?”

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Jothi Venkat

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