Why It Takes So Long to Diagnose Ankylosing Spondylitis


Carlos Julio Aponte, MD, certified rheumatologist and member of the American College of Rheumatology.

David Borenstein, MD, clinical professor of medicine, George Washington University Medical Center; associate, Arthritis and Rheumatism Associates, Washington, DC; editor, spinecommunity.com.

UpToDate: “Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (ankylosing spondylitis and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis) in adults”, “Pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis”.

National Health Service (UK): “Ankylosing spondylitis.”

American Spondylitis Association: “Diagnosis of Ankylosing Spondylitis”.

Johns Hopkins Arthritis Center: “Ankylosing Spondylitis”.

Current rheumatology reports: “Gender differences in axial spondyloarthritis: women are not so lucky.”

Stanford Healthcare: “How is ankylosing spondylitis diagnosed?”

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Jothi Venkat

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