How Alcohol Affects Crohn’s Disease and the Medicines You Take to Treat It


Mayo Clinic: “Crohn’s disease”.

Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation: “Malnutrition and IBD”, “Substance abuse”, “What should I eat?”

Garth Swanson, MD, associate professor of medicine; director, Crohn’s and Colitis Center, Rush University Medical Center.

Digestion: “Is moderate red wine consumption safe in inactive inflammatory bowel disease?”

Online laboratory tests: “Calprotectin”.

Harvard Medical School: “Leaky gut: What is it, and what does it mean to you?”

Annals of Gastroenterology: “Use of Alcohol and Narcotics in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.”

American College of Rheumatology: “Methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall, Otrexup, Rasuvo)”.

National Health Service, UK: “Azathioprine”.

Reezwana Chowdhury, MD, assistant professor of medicine, gastroenterology and hepatology; IBD Specialist, Johns Hopkins Medicine.

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Jothi Venkat

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